Cyclosporine is a cyclic polypeptide consisting of 11 amino acids. It is a potent immunosuppressive agent, which prolongs survival of allogeneic transplants of skin, heart, kidney, pancreas, bone marrow, small intestine or lung. Cyclosporine acts specifically and reversibly on lymphocytes. Unlike cytostatic agents, it does not depress haemopoiesis and has no effect on the function of phagocytic cells. Patients treated with Cyclosporine are less prone to infection than those receiving other immunosuppressive therapy.
Solid organ transplantation: Initially 10 to 15 mg/kg given in 2 divided doses starting 12 hours before surgery and to continue for 1 to 2 weeks post-operatively. Maintenance dose should be gradually reached to 2 to 6 mg/kg given in 2 divided doses.
Bone marrow transplantation: Initially 12.5 to 15 mg/kg given in 2 divided doses, starting on the day before transplantation. Maintenance treatment of 12.5 mg/Kg in 2 divided doses should be continued for at least 3 months (and preferably for 6 months) before the dose is gradually decreased to zero by 1 year after transplantation.
Endogenous uveitis: Initially 5 mg/kg per day orally given in 2 divided doses are recommended. For maintenance treatment, the dose should be slowly reduced to the lowest effective level.
Nephrotic syndrome: Initially 5 mg/kg for adults and 6 mg/kg for children given in 2 divided doses. In case of renal impairement, the initial dose should not exceed 2.5 mg/kg per day. For maintenance treatment, the dose should be slowly reduced to the lowest effective level.
Rheumatoid arthritis: For the first 6 weeks, the recommended dose is 3 mg/kg per day in 2 divided doses. To achieve full effectiveness, up to 12 weeks of Cyclosporine therapy may be required. For maintenance treatment, the dose has to be titrated individually according to tolerability.
Psoriasis & Atopic dermatitis: Initially 2.5 mg/kg per day orally given in 2 divided doses and 5 mg/kg per day for patients whose condition requires rapid improvement. For maintenance treatment, doses have to be titrated individually to the lowest effective level.