Ketorolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) chemically related to indomethacin and tolmetin. Ketorolac tromethamine is a racemic mixture of [-]S- and [+]R-enantiomeric forms, with the S-form having analgesic activity. Its antiinflammatory effects are believed to be due to inhibition of both cylooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cylooxygenase-2 (COX-2) which leads to the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis leading to decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. The resultant reduction in prostaglandin synthesis and activity may be at least partially responsible for many of the adverse, as well as the therapeutic, effects of these medications. Analgesia is probably produced via a peripheral action in which blockade of pain impulse generation results from decreased prostaglandin activity. However, inhibition of the synthesis or actions of other substances that sensitize pain receptors to mechanical or chemical stimulation may also contribute to the analgesic effect. In terms of the ophthalmic applications of ketorolac – ocular administration of ketorolac reduces prostaglandin E2 levels in aqueous humor, secondary to inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.
Torax IM/IV Injection
Ketorolac Tablet is recommended for short-term use only (up to 7 days) and are not recommended for chronic use. 10 mg every 4 to 6 hours as required. Doses exceeding 40 mg/day are not recommended. For patients receiving parenteral Ketorolac tromethamine, and who are converted to Ketorolac tromethamine oral tablets, the total combined daily dose should not exceed 90 mg (60 mg for the elderly, renally impaired patients and patients less than 50 kg) and the oral component should not exceed 40 mg on the day the change of formulation is made. Patients should be converted to oral treatment as soon as possible.
Ketorolac injection may be used as a single or multiple doses, on a regular or when necessary schedule for the management of moderately severe, acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level, usually in a postoperative setting. When administering Ketorolac injection, the IV bolus must be given over no less than 15 seconds. The IM administration should be given slowly and deeply into the muscle. The analgesic effect begins within 30 minutes with maximum effect in 1 to 2 hours after dosing IV or IM. Duration of analgesic effect is usually 4 to 6 hours. Single-Dose Treatment: The following regimen should be limited to single administration use only.
IM Dosing (Adult):
Patients <65 years of age: One dose of 60 mg. Patients >65 years of age, renally impaired and/or less than 50 kg of body weight: One dose of 30 mg.
IV Dosing (Adult):
Patients <65 years of age: One dose of 30 mg. Patients >65 years of age, renally impaired and/or less than 50 kg of body weight: One dose of 15 mg.
IV or IM Dosing (2 to 16 years of age):
IM Dosing: One dose of 1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 30 mg.
IV Dosing: One dose of 0.5 mg/kg up to a maximum of 15 mg.
Multiple-Dose Treatment (IV or IM):
Patients <65 years of age: The recommended dose is 30 mg Ketorolac injection every 6 hours. The maximum daily dose should not exceed 120 mg. Patients >65 years of age, renally impaired patients and patients less than 50 kg: The recommended dose is 15 mg Ketorolac injection every 6 hours. The maximum daily dose for these populations should not exceed 60 mg. For breakthrough pain, do not increase the dose or the frequency of Ketorolac Tromethamine.
Conversion from Parenteral to Oral Therapy: Ketorolac tablets may be used either as monotherapy or as follow-on therapy to parenteral Ketorolac. When Ketorolac tablets are used as a follow-on therapy to parenteral Ketorolac, the total combined daily dose of ketorolac (oral + parenteral) should not exceed 120 mg in younger adult patients or 60 mg in elderly patients on the day the change of formulation is made. On subsequent days, oral dosing should not exceed the recommended daily maximum of 40 mg. Ketorolac IM should be replaced by Ketorolac tablet as soon as feasible. The total duration of combined parenteral and oral treatment should not exceed 5 days.
Ketorolac Nasal spray-
Adults weighing 50 kg or more: 31.5 mg or 2 spray in each nostril every 6 to 8 hours. Your doctor may adjust your dose if needed. However, the dose is not more than 126 mg (a total of 8 sprays) per day.
Older adults and adults weighing less than 50 kg: 15.75 mg or 1 spray in only one nostril every 6 to 8 hours. However, the dose is usually not more than 63 mg (a total of 4 sprays) per day.
Children: Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.